Tag Archives: cyber security

A CDC for Cyber

I remember reading somewhere a few years back that Microsoft had commissioned a report which recommended that the U.S. government set up an entity akin to its Center for Disease Control but for cyber security.  An intriguing idea.  The trade press talks about malware and computer viruses and infections to describe self -replicating malicious code in the same way doctors talk about metastasizing cancers or the flu; likewise, as with public health, rather than focusing on prevention and detection, we often blame those who have become infected and try to retrospectively arrest/prosecute (cure) those responsible (the cancer cells, hackers) long after the original harm is done. Regarding cyber, what if we extended this paradigm and instead viewed global cyber security as an exercise in public health?

As I recall, the report pointed out that organizations such as the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta and the World Health Organization in Geneva have over decades developed robust systems and objective methodologies for identifying and responding to public health threats; structures and frameworks that are far more developed than those existent in today’s cyber-security community. Given the many parallels between communicable human diseases and those affecting today’s technologies, there is also much fraud examiners and security professionals can learn from the public health model, an adaptable system capable of responding to an ever-changing array of pathogens around the world.

With cyber as with matters of public health, individual actions can only go so far. It’s great if an individual has excellent techniques of personal hygiene, but if everyone in that person’s town has the flu, eventually that individual will probably succumb as well. The comparison is relevant to the world of cyber threats. Individual responsibility and action can make an enormous difference in cyber security, but ultimately the only hope we have as a nation in responding to rapidly propagating threats across this planetary matrix of interconnected technologies is to construct new institutions to coordinate our response. A trusted, international cyber World Health Organization could foster cooperation and collaboration across companies, countries, and government agencies, a crucial step required to improve the overall public health of the networks driving the critical infrastructures in both our online and our off-line worlds.

Such a proposed cyber CDC could go a long way toward counteracting the technological risks our country faces today and could serve a critical role in improving the overall public health of the networks driving the critical infrastructures of our world. A cyber CDC could fulfill many roles that are carried out today only on an ad hoc basis, if at all, including:

• Education — providing members of the public with proven methods of cyber hygiene to protect themselves;
• Network monitoring — detection of infection and outbreaks of malware in cyberspace;
• Epidemiology — using public health methodologies to study digital cyber disease propagation and provide guidance on response and remediation;
• Immunization — helping to ‘vaccinate’ companies and the public against known threats through software patches and system updates;
• Incident response — dispatching experts as required and coordinating national and global efforts to isolate the sources of online infection and treat those affected.

While there are many organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, that focus on the above tasks, no single entity owns them all. It is through these gaps in effort and coordination that cyber risks continue to mount. An epidemiological approach to our growing technological risks is required to get to the source of malware infections, as was the case in the fight against malaria. For decades, all medical efforts focused in vain on treating the disease in those already infected. But it wasn’t until epidemiologists realized the malady was spread by mosquitoes breeding in still pools of water that genuine progress was made in the fight against the disease. By draining the pools where mosquitoes and their larvae grow, epidemiologists deprived them of an important breeding ground, thus reducing the spread of malaria. What stagnant pools can we drain in cyberspace to achieve a comparable result? The answer represents the yet unanswered challenge.

There is another major challenge a cyber CDC would face: most of those who are sick have no idea they are walking around infected, spreading disease to others. Whereas malaria patients develop fever, sweats, nausea, and difficulty breathing, important symptoms of their illness, infected computer users may be completely asymptomatic. This significant difference is evidenced by the fact that the overwhelming majority of those with infected devices have no idea there is malware on their machines nor that they might have even joined a botnet army. Even in the corporate world, with the average time to detection of a network breach now at 210 days, most companies have no idea their most prized assets, whether intellectual property or a factory’s machinery, have been compromised. The only thing worse than being hacked is being hacked and not knowing about it. If you don’t know you’re sick, how can you possibly get treatment? Moreover, how can we prevent digital disease propagation if carriers of these maladies don’t realize they are infecting others?

Addressing these issues could be a key area of import for any proposed cyber CDC and fundamental to future communal safety and that of critical information infrastructures. Cyber-security researchers have pointed out the obvious Achilles’ heel of the modern technology infused world, the fact that today everything is either run by computers (or will be) and that everything is reliant on these computers continuing to work. The challenge is that we must have some way of continuing to work even if all the computers fail. Were our information systems to crash on a mass scale, there would be no trading on financial markets, no taking money from ATMs, no telephone network, and no pumping gas. If these core building blocks of our society were to suddenly give way, what would humanity’s backup plan be? The answer is simply, we don’t now have one.

Complicating all this from a law enforcement and fraud investigation perspective is that black hats generally benefit from technology long before defenders and investigators ever do. The successful ones have nearly unlimited budgets and don’t have to deal with internal bureaucracies, approval processes, or legal constraints. But there are other systemic issues that give criminals the upper hand, particularly around jurisdiction and international law. In a matter of minutes, the perpetrator of an online crime can virtually visit six different countries, hopping from server to server and continent to continent in an instant. But what about the police who must follow the digital evidence trail to investigate the matter?  As with all government activities, policies, and procedures, regulations must be followed. Trans-border cyber-attacks raise serious jurisdictional issues, not just for an individual police department, but for the entire institution of policing as currently formulated. A cop in Baltimore has no authority to compel an ISP in Paris to provide evidence, nor can he make an arrest on the right bank. That can only be done by request, government to government, often via mutual legal assistance treaties. The abysmally slow pace of international law means it commonly takes years for police to get evidence from overseas (years in a world in which digital evidence can be destroyed in seconds). Worse, most countries still do not even have cyber-crime laws on the books, meaning that criminals can act with impunity making response through a coordinating entity like a cyber-CDC more valuable to the U.S. specifically and to the world in general.

Experts have pointed out that we’re engaged in a technological arms race, an arms race between people who are using technology for good and those who are using it for ill. The challenge is that nefarious uses of technology are scaling exponentially in ways that our current systems of protection have simply not matched.  The point is, if we are to survive the progress offered by our technologies and enjoy their benefits, we must first develop adaptive mechanisms of security that can match or exceed the exponential pace of the threats confronting us. On this most important of imperatives, there is unambiguously no time to lose.

Help for the Little Guy

It’s clear to the news media and to every aware assurance professional that today’s cybercriminals are more sophisticated than ever in their operations and attacks. They’re always on the lookout for innovative ways to exploit vulnerabilities in every global payment system and in the cloud.

According to the ACFE, more consumer records were compromised in 2015-16 than in the previous four years combined. Data breach statistics from this year (2017) are projected to be even grimmer due to the growth of increasingly sophisticated attack methods such as increasingly complex malware infections and system vulnerability exploits, which grew tenfold in 2016. With attacks coming in many different forms and from many different channels, consumers, businesses and financial institutions (often against their will) are being forced to gain a better understanding of how criminals operate, especially in ubiquitous channels like social networks. They then have a better chance of mitigating the risks and recognizing attacks before they do severe damage.

As your Chapter has pointed out over the years in this blog, understanding the mechanics of data theft and the conversion process of stolen data into cash can help organizations of all types better anticipate in the exact ways criminals may exploit the system, so that organizations can put appropriate preventive measures in place. Classic examples of such criminal activity include masquerading as a trustworthy entity such as a bank or credit card company. These phishers send e-mails and instant messages that prompt users to reply with sensitive information such as usernames, passwords and credit card details, or to enter the information at a rogue web site. Other similar techniques include using text messaging (SMSishing or smishing) or voice mail (vishing) or today’s flood of offshore spam calls to lure victims into giving up sensitive information. Whaling is phishing targeted at high-worth accounts or individuals, often identified through social networking sites such as LinkedIn or Facebook. While it’s impossible to anticipate or prevent every attack, one way to stay a step ahead of these criminals is to have a thorough understanding of how such fraudsters operate their enterprises.

Although most cyber breaches reported recently in the news have struck large companies such as Equifax and Yahoo, the ACFE tells us that small and mid-sized businesses suffer a far greater number of devastating cyber incidents. These breaches involve organizations of every industry type; all that’s required for vulnerability is that they operate network servers attached to the internet. Although the number of breached records a small to medium sized business controls is in the hundreds or thousands, rather than in the millions, the cost of these breaches can be higher for the small business because it may not be able to effectively address such incidents on its own.  Many small businesses have limited or no resources committed to cybersecurity, and many don’t employ any assurance professionals apart from the small accounting firms performing their annual financial audit. For these organizations, the key questions are “Where should we focus when it comes to cybersecurity?” and “What are the minimum controls we must have to protect the sensitive information in our custody?” Fraud Examiners and forensic accountants with client attorneys assisting small businesses can assist in answering these questions by checking that their client attorney’s organizations implement a few vital cybersecurity controls.

First, regardless of their industry, small businesses must ensure their network perimeter is protected. The first step is identifying the vulnerabilities by performing an external network scan at least quarterly. A small business can either hire an outside company to perform these scans, or, if they have small in-house or contracted IT, they can license off-the-shelf software to run the scans, themselves. Moreover, small businesses need a process in place to remedy the identified critical, high, and medium vulnerabilities within three months of the scan run date, while low vulnerabilities are less of a priority. The fewer vulnerabilities the perimeter network has,
the less chance that an external hacker will breach the organization’s network.

Educating employees about their cybersecurity responsibilities is not a simple check-sheet matter. Smaller businesses not only need help in implementing an effective information security policy, they also need to ensure employees are aware of the policy and of their responsibilities. The policy and training should cover:

–Awareness of phishing attacks;
–Training on ransomware management;
–Travel tips;
–Potential threats of social engineering;
–Password protection;
–Risks of storing sensitive data in the cloud;
–Accessing corporate information from home computers and other personal devices;
–Awareness of tools the organization provides for securely sending emails or sharing large files;
–Protection of mobile devices;
–Awareness of CEO spoofing attacks.

In addition, small businesses should verify employees’ level of awareness by conducting simulation exercises. These can be in the form of a phishing exercise in which organizations themselves send fake emails to their employees to see if they will click on a web link, or a social engineering exercise in which a hired individual tries to enter the organization’s physical location and steal sensitive information such as information on computer screens left in plain sight.

In small organizations, sensitive information tends to proliferate across various platforms and folders. For example, employees’ personal information typically resides in human resources software or with a cloud service provider, but through various downloads and reports, the information can proliferate to shared drives and folders, laptops, emails, and even cloud folders like Dropbox or Google Drive. Assigned management at the organization should check that the organization has identified the sites of such proliferation to make sure it has a good handle on the state of all the organization’s sensitive information:

–Inventory all sensitive business processes and the related IT systems. Depending on the organization’s industry, this information could include customer information, pricing data, customers’ credit card information, patients’ health information, engineering data, or financial data;
–For each business process, identify an information owner who has complete authority to approve user access to that information;
–Ensure that the information owner periodically reviews access to all the information he or she owns and updates the access list.

Organizations should make it hard to get to their sensitive data by building layers or network segments. Although the network perimeter is an organization’s first line of defense, the probability of the network being penetrated is today at an all-time high. Management should check whether the organization has built a layered defense to protect its sensitive information. Once the organization has identified its sensitive information, management should work with the IT function to segment those servers that run its sensitive applications.  This segmentation will result in an additional layer of protection for these servers, typically by adding another firewall for the segment. Faced with having to penetrate another layer of defense, an intruder may decide to go elsewhere where less sensitive information is stored.

An organization’s electronic business front door also can be the entrance for fraudsters and criminals. Most of today’s malware enters through the network but proliferates through the endpoints such as laptops and desktops. At a minimum, internal small business management must ensure that all the endpoints are running anti-malware/anti-virus software. Also, they should check that this software’s firewall features are enabled. Moreover, all laptop hard drives should be encrypted.

In addition to making sure their client organizations have implemented these core controls, assurance professionals should advise small business client executives to consider other protective controls:

–Monitor the network. Network monitoring products and services can provide real-time alerts in case there is an intrusion;
–Manage service providers. Organizations should inventory all key service providers and review all contracts for appropriate security, privacy, and data breach notification language;
–Protect smart devices. Increasingly, company information is stored on mobile devices. Several off-the-shelf solutions can manage and protect the information on these devices. Small businesses should ensure they are able to wipe the sensitive information from these devices if they are lost or stolen;
–Monitor activity related to sensitive information. Management IT should log activities against their sensitive information and keep an audit log in case an incident occurs and they need to review the logs to evaluate the incident.

Combined with the controls listed above, these additional controls can help any small business reduce the probability of a data breach. But a security program is only as strong as its weakest link Through their assurance and advisory work, CFE’s and forensic accountants can proactively help identify these weaknesses and suggest ways to strengthen their smaller client organization’s anti-fraud defenses.

From Inside the Building

By Rumbi Petrozzello, CFE, CPA/CFF
2017 Vice-President – Central Virginia Chapter ACFE

Several months ago, I attended an ACFE session where one of the speakers had worked on the investigation of Edward Snowden. He shared that one of the ways Snowden had gained access to some of the National Security Agency (NSA) data that he downloaded was through the inadvertent assistance of his supervisor. According to this investigator, Snowden’s supervisor shared his password with Snowden, giving Snowden access to information that was beyond his subordinate’s level of authorization. In addition to this, when those security personnel reviewing downloads made by employees noticed that Snowden was downloading copious amounts of data, they approached Snowden’s supervisor to question why this might be the case. The supervisor, while acknowledging this to be true, stated that Snowden wasn’t really doing anything untoward.

At another ACFE session, a speaker shared information with us about how Chelsea Manning was able to download and remove data from a secure government facility. Manning would come to work, wearing headphones, listening to music on a Discman. Security would hear the music blasting and scan the CDs. Day after day, it was the same scenario. Manning showed up to work, music blaring.  Security staff grew so accustomed to Manning, the Discman and her CDs that when she came to work though security with a blank CD boldly labelled “LADY GAGA”, security didn’t blink. They should have because it was that CD and ones like it that she later carried home from work that contained the data she eventually shared with WikiLeaks.

Both these high-profile disasters are notable examples of the bad outcome arising from a realized internal threat. Both Snowden and Manning worked for organizations that had, and have, more rigorous security procedures and policies in place than most entities. Yet, both Snowden and Manning did not need to perform any magic tricks to sneak data out of the secure sites where the target data was held; it seems that it all it took was audacity on the one side and trust and complacency on the other.

When organizations deal with outside parties, such as vendors and customers, they tend to spend a lot of time setting up the structures and systems that will guide how the organization will interact with those vendors and customers. Generally, companies will take these systems of control seriously, if only because of the problems they will have to deal with during annual external audits if they don’t. The typical new employee will spend a lot of time learning what the steps are from the point when a customer places an order through to the point the customer’s payment is received. There will be countless training manuals to which to refer and many a reminder from co-workers who may be negatively impacted if the rooky screws up.

However, this scenario tends not to hold up when it comes to how employees typically share information and interact with each other. This is true despite the elevated risk that a rogue insider represents. Often, when we think about an insider causing harm to a company through fraudulent acts, we tend to imagine a villain, someone we could identify easily because s/he is obviously a terrible person. After all, only a terrible person could defraud their employer. In fact, as the ACFE tells us, the most successful fraudsters are the ones who gain our trust and who, therefore, don’t really have to do too much for us to hand over the keys to the kingdom. As CFEs and Forensic Accountants, we need to help those we work with understand the risks that an insider threat can represent and how to mitigate that risk. It’s important, in advising our clients, to guide them toward the creation of preventative systems of policy and procedure that they sometimes tend to view as too onerous for their employees. Excuses I often hear run along the lines of:

• “Our employees are like family here, we don’t need to have all these rules and regulations”

• “I keep a close eye on things, so I don’t have to worry about all that”

• “My staff knows what they are supposed to do; don’t worry about it.”

Now, if people can easily walk sensitive information out of locations that have documented systems and are known to be high security operations, can you imagine what they can do at your client organizations? Especially if the employer is assuming that their employees magically know what they are supposed to do? This is the point that we should be driving home with our clients. We should look to address the fact that both trust and complacency in organizations can be problems as well as assets. It’s great to be able to trust employees, but we should also talk to our clients about the fraud triangle and how one aspect of it, pressure, can happen to any staff member, even the most trusted. With that in mind, it’s important to institute controls so that, should pressure arise with an employee, there will be little opportunity open to that employee to act. Both Manning and Snowden have publicly spoken about the pressures they felt that led them to act in the way they did. The reason we even know about them today is that they had the opportunity to act on those pressures. I’ve spent time consulting with large organizations, often for months at a time. During those times, I got to chat with many members of staff, including security. On a couple of occasions, I forgot and left my building pass at home. Even though I was on a first name basis with the security staff and had spent time chatting with them about our personal lives, they still asked me for identification and looked me up in the system. I’m sure they thought I was a nice and trustworthy enough person, but they knew to follow procedures and always checked on whether I was still authorized to access the building. The important point is that they, despite knowing me, knew to check and followed through.

Examples of controls employees should be reminded to follow are:

• Don’t share your password with a fellow employee. If that employee cannot access certain information with their own password, either they are not authorized to access that information or they should speak with an administrator to gain the desired access. Sharing a password seems like a quick and easy solution when under time pressures at work, but remind employees that when they share their login information, anything that goes awry will be attributed to them.

• Always follow procedures. Someone looking for an opportunity only needs one.

• When something looks amiss, thoroughly investigate it. Even if someone tells you that all is well, verify that this is indeed the case.

• Explain to staff and management why a specific control is in place and why it’s important. If they understand why they are doing something, they are more likely to see the control as useful and to apply it.

• Schedule training on a regular basis to remind staff of the controls in place and the systems they are to follow. You may believe that staff knows what they are supposed to do, but reminding them reduces the risk of them relying on hearsay and secondhand information. Management is often surprised by what they think staff knows and what they find out the staff really knows.

It should be clear to your clients that they have control over who has access to sensitive information and when and how it leaves their control. It doesn’t take much for an insider to gain access to this information. A face you see smiling at you daily is the face of a person you can grow comfortable with and with whom you can drop your guard. However, if you already have an adequate system and effective controls in place, you take the personal out of the equation and everyone understands that we are all just doing our job.

Sock Puppets

The issue of falsely claimed identity in all its myriad forms has shadowed the Internet since the beginning of the medium.  Anyone who has used an on-line dating or auction site is all too familiar with the problem; anyone can claim to be anyone.  Likewise, confidence games, on or off-line, involve a range of fraudulent conduct committed by professional con artists against unsuspecting victims. The victims can be organizations, but more commonly are individuals. Con artists have classically acted alone, but now, especially on the Internet, they usually group together in criminal organizations for increasingly complex criminal endeavors. Con artists are skilled marketers who can develop effective marketing strategies, which include a target audience and an appropriate marketing plan: crafting promotions, product, price, and place to lure their victims. Victimization is achieved when this marketing strategy is successful. And falsely claimed identities are always an integral component of such schemes, especially those carried out on-line.

Such marketing strategies generally involve a specific target market, which is usually made up of affinity groups consisting of individuals grouped around an objective, bond, or association like Facebook or LinkedIn Group users. Affinity groups may, therefore, include those associated through age, gender, religion, social status, geographic location, business or industry, hobbies or activities, or professional status. Perpetrators gain their victims’ trust by affiliating themselves with these groups.  Historically, various mediums of communication have been initially used to lure the victim. In most cases, today’s fraudulent schemes begin with an offer or invitation to connect through the Internet or social network, but the invitation can come by mail, telephone, newspapers and magazines, television, radio, or door-to-door channels.

Once the mark receives and accepts the offer to connect, some sort of response or acceptance is requested. The response will typically include (in the case of Facebook or LinkedIn) clicking on a link included in a fraudulent follow-up post to visit a specified web site or to call a toll-free number.

According to one of Facebook’s own annual reports, up to 11.2 percent of its accounts are fake. Considering the world’s largest social media company has 1.3 billion users, that means up to 140 million Facebook accounts are fraudulent; these users simply don’t exist. With 140 million inhabitants, the fake population of Facebook would be the tenth-largest country in the world. Just as Nielsen ratings on television sets determine different advertising rates for one television program versus another, on-line ad sales are determined by how many eyeballs a Web site or social media service can command.

Let’s say a shyster want 3,000 followers on Twitter to boost the credibility of her scheme? They can be hers for $5. Let’s say she wants 10,000 satisfied customers on Facebook for the same reason? No problem, she can buy them on several websites for around $1,500. A million new friends on Instagram can be had for only $3,700. Whether the con man wants favorites, likes, retweets, up votes, or page views, all are for sale on Web sites like Swenzy, Fiverr, and Craigslist. These fraudulent social media accounts can then be freely used to falsely endorse a product, service, or company, all for just a small fee. Most of the work of fake account set up is carried out in the developing world, in places such as India and Bangladesh, where actual humans may control the accounts. In other locales, such as Russia, Ukraine, and Romania, the entire process has been scripted by computer bots, programs that will carry out pre-encoded automated instructions, such as “click the Like button,” repeatedly, each time using a different fake persona.

Just as horror movie shape-shifters can physically transform themselves from one being into another, these modern screen shifters have their own magical powers, and organizations of men are eager to employ them, studying their techniques and deploying them against easy marks for massive profit. In fact, many of these clicks are done for the purposes of “click fraud.” Businesses pay companies such as Facebook and Google every time a potential customer clicks on one of the ubiquitous banner ads or links online, but organized crime groups have figured out how to game the system to drive profits their way via so-called ad networks, which capitalize on all those extra clicks.

Painfully aware of this, social media companies have attempted to cut back on the number of fake profiles. As a result, thousands and thousands of identities have disappeared over night among the followers of many well know celebrities and popular websites. If Facebook has 140 million fake profiles, there is no way they could have been created manually one by one. The process of creation is called sock puppetry and is a reference to the children’s toy puppet created when a hand is inserted into a sock to bring the sock to life. In the online world, organized crime groups create sock puppets by combining computer scripting, web automation, and social networks to create legions of online personas. This can be done easily and cheaply enough to allow those with deceptive intentions to create hundreds of thousands of fake online citizens. One only needs to consult a readily available on-line directory of the most common names in any country or region. Have a scripted bot merely pick a first name and a last name, then choose a date of birth and let the bot sign up for a free e-mail account. Next, scrape on-line photo sites such as Picasa, Instagram, Facebook, Google, and Flickr to choose an age-appropriate image to represent your new sock puppet.

Armed with an e-mail address, name, date of birth, and photograph, you sign up your fake persona for an account on Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, or Instagram. As a last step, you teach your puppets how to talk by scripting them to reach out and send friend requests, repost other people’s tweets, and randomly like things they see Online. Your bots can even communicate and cross-post with one another. Before the fraudster knows it, s/he has thousands of sock puppets at his disposal for use as he sees fit. It is these armies of sock puppets that criminals use as key constituents in their phishing attacks, to fake on-line reviews, to trick users into downloading spyware, and to commit a wide variety of financial frauds, all based on misplaced and falsely claimed identity.

The fraudster’s environment has changed and is changing over time, from a face-to-face physical encounter to an anonymous on-line encounter in the comfort of the victim’s own home. While some consumers are unaware that a weapon is virtually right in front of them, others are victims who struggle with the balance of the many wonderful benefits offered by advanced technology and the painful effects of its consequences. The goal of law enforcement has not changed over the years; to block the roads and close the loopholes of perpetrators even as perpetrators continue to strive to find yet another avenue to commit fraud in an environment in which they can thrive. Today, the challenge for CFEs, law enforcement and government officials is to stay on the cutting edge of technology, which requires access to constantly updated resources and communication between organizations; the ability to gather information; and the capacity to identify and analyze trends, institute effective policies, and detect and deter fraud through restitution and prevention measures.

Now is the time for CFEs and other assurance professionals to continuously reevaluate all we for take for granted in the modern technical world and to increasingly question our ever growing dependence on the whole range of ubiquitous machines whose potential to facilitate fraud so few of our clients and the general public understand.

Industrialized Theft

In at least one way you have to hand it to Ethically Challenged, Inc.;  it sure knows how to innovate, and the recent spate of ransomware attacks proves they also know how to make what’s old new again. Although society’s criminal opponents engage in constant business process improvement, they’ve proven again and again that they’re not just limited to committing new crimes from scratch every time. In the age of Moore’s law, these tasks have been readily automated and can run in the background at scale without the need for significant human intervention. Crime automations like the WannaCry virus allow transnational organized crime groups to gain the same efficiencies and cost savings that multinational corporations obtained by leveraging technology to carry out their core business functions. That’s why today it’s possible for hackers to rob not just one person at a time but 100 million or more, as the world saw with the Sony PlayStation and Target data breaches and now with the WannaCry worm.

As covered in our Chapter’s training event of last year, ‘Investigating on the Internet’, exploit tool kits like Blackhole and SpyEye commit crime “automagically” by minimizing the need for human labor, thereby dramatically reducing criminal costs. They also allow hackers to pursue the “long tail” of opportunity, committing millions of thefts in small amounts so that (in many cases) victims don’t report them and law enforcement has no way to track them. While high-value targets (companies, nations, celebrities, high-net-worth individuals) are specifically and individually targeted, the way the majority of the public is hacked is by automated scripted computer malware, one large digital fishing net that scoops up anything and everything online with a vulnerability that can be exploited. Given these obvious advantages, as of 2016 an estimated 61 percent of all online attacks were launched by fully automated crime tool kits, returning phenomenal profits for the Dark Web overlords who expertly orchestrated them. Modern crime has become reduced and distilled to a software program that anybody can run at tremendous profit.

Not only can botnets and other tools be used over and over to attack and offend, but they’re now enabling the commission of much more sophisticated crimes such as extortion, blackmail, and shakedown rackets. In an updated version of the old $500 million Ukrainian Innovative Marketing solutions “virus detected” scam, fraudsters have unleashed a new torrent of malware that hold the victim’s computer hostage until a ransom is paid and an unlock code is provided by the scammer to regain access to the victim’s own files. Ransomware attack tools are included in a variety of Dark Net tool kits, such as WannaCry and Gameover Zeus. According to the ACFE, there are several varieties of this scam, including one that purports to come from law enforcement. Around the world, users who become infected with the Reveton Trojan suddenly have their computers lock up and their full screens covered with a notice, allegedly from the FBI. The message, bearing an official-looking large, full-color FBI logo, states that the user’s computer has been locked for reasons such as “violation of the federal copyright law against illegally downloaded material” or because “you have been viewing or distributing prohibited pornographic content.”

In the case of the Reveton Trojan, to unlock their computers, users are informed that they must pay a fine ranging from $200 to $400, only accepted using a prepaid voucher from Green Dot’s MoneyPak, which victims are instructed they can buy at their local Walmart or CVS; victims of WannaCry are required to pay in BitCoin. To further intimidate victims and drive home the fact that this is a serious police matter, the Reveton scammers prominently display the alleged violator’s IP address on their screen as well as snippets of video footage previously captured from the victim’s Webcam. As with the current WannaCry exploit, the Reveton scam has successfully targeted tens of thousands of victims around the world, with the attack localized by country, language, and police agency. Thus, users in the U.K. see a notice from Scotland Yard, other Europeans get a warning from Europol, and victims in the United Arab Emirates see the threat, translated into Arabic, purportedly from the Abu Dhabi Police HQ.

WannaCry is even more pernicious than Reveton though in that it actually encrypts all the files on a victim’s computer so that they can no longer be read or accessed. Alarmingly, variants of this type of malware often present a ticking-bomb-type countdown clock advising users that they only have forty-eight hours to pay $300 or all of their files will be permanently destroyed. Akin to threatening “if you ever want to see your files alive again,” these ransomware programs gladly accept payment in Bitcoin. The message to these victims is no idle threat. Whereas previous ransomware might trick users by temporarily hiding their files, newer variants use strong 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard cryptography to lock user files so that they become irrecoverable. These types of exploits earn scores of millions of dollars for the criminal programmers who develop and sell them on-line to other criminals.

Automated ransomware tools have even migrated to mobile phones, affecting Android handset users in certain countries. Not only have individuals been harmed by the ransomware scourge, so too have companies, nonprofits, and even government agencies, the most infamous of which was the Swansea Police Department in Massachusetts some years back, which became infected when an employee opened a malicious e-mail attachment. Rather than losing its irreplaceable police case files to the scammers, the agency was forced to open a Bitcoin account and pay a $750 ransom to get its files back. The police lieutenant told the press he had no idea what a Bitcoin was or how the malware functioned until his department was struck in the attack.

As the ACFE and other professional organizations have told us, within its world, cybercrime has evolved highly sophisticated methods of operation to sell everything from methamphetamine to child sexual abuse live streamed online. It has rapidly adopted existing tools of anonymity such as the Tor browser to establish Dark Net shopping malls, and criminal consulting services such as hacking and murder for hire are all available at the click of a mouse. Untraceable and anonymous digital currencies, such as Bitcoin, are breathing new life into the underground economy and allowing for the rapid exchange of goods and services. With these additional revenues, cyber criminals are becoming more disciplined and organized, significantly increasing the sophistication of their operations. Business models are being automated wherever possible to maximize profits and botnets can threaten legitimate global commerce, easily trained on any target of the scammer’s choosing. Fundamentally, it’s been done. As WannaCry demonstrates, the computing and Internet based crime machine has been built. With these systems in place, the depth and global reach of cybercrime, mean that crime now scales, and it scales exponentially. Yet, as bad as this threat is today, it is about to become much worse, as we hand such scammers billions of more targets for them to attack as we enter the age of ubiquitous computing and the Internet of Things.

The Caveat Emptor World of Cyber Security


skeleton-6Over the last five years it’s apparent that everything has changed on the internet; business activities, information technology, the communications environment as well as the threat landscape, most especially to the corporate big data of our clients (Target recently and, I’m sure, many others to come).   Retailers and hackers have become locked in a cyber arms race and retail customers are the losers.  The press and media at all levels are full of reports of government and business systems being infiltrated and thousand  of terabytes of big data stolen.  Consumer’s computers,  wireless modems and, increasingly cell phones are being compromised and it seems  the fabric of cyberspace is under attack, with even nation states demonstrating their ability to take control of the internet seemingly at will.

All of this is as a result of a number of fundamental shifts in technology and those shifts require an equally fundamental shift in attitudes toward security for concerned players at all levels.  This is because information technology has evolved for our clients from purely a means of system automation into an essential characteristic of society itself, an entity called cyberspace.  Seemingly before our eyes, the kind of quality, reliability and availability that has been traditionally associated only with power and water utilities is now absolutely essential for the protection and continued operation of the technology used to deliver all types of government and business services to its ever expanding user public.  The critical information service flows of cyberspace have become as essential to the continuity of our daily survival as water and power grid services.

Cloud computing, coupled with the internal big data on customers of retail and financial services companies enables individuals  and organizations to access application services and data from anywhere via a web interface; this is essentially an information service model of delivery with attitude.  I used to produce this blog by running Microsoft Front Page on a PC; now I use WordPress in the cloud…the economies possible through use of cloud rather than internal IT solutions will inevitably see the majority of businesses (and governments) running in the cloud.  This model substantially changes the ways in which organizations can affect and will have to securely manage both their IT functions and the security of their systems.

As fraud examiners conducting fraud risk assessments and investigating cyber based incidents, we need to be aware that the security standards employed today by the bulk of our clients (and currently arrayed to protect their constantly growing hoards of customer and financial data) were developed in a world in which computers were subject to the frauds and other criminal activities perpetrated primarily by individuals inside, and to a lesser extent, outside their organizations.  That era is now long past.  What has changed is the rapid increase in organized cyber crime through the emergence of robot networks (bot-nets) enabling network penetrations and related criminal activity to be conducted on an unprecedented global scale.  These bot-networks can be used as force multipliers to deliver massive denial of service attacks on targeted businesses, essentially cutting the victims off from the global internet.

Cyber crime is now arguably a bigger issue than illegal drugs given its potential to directly affect the lives (and livelihoods) of every customer of every business and of every citizen of every country.  Yet the growing problem in cyberspace doesn’t come from the threats alone but from the combination of threats and vulnerabilities.  As fraud professionals in the front line we need to make our clients aware that their vulnerabilities are neither more nor less than byproducts of the currently low or none existent level of quality in the personnel and products they use to provide themselves with cyber security.  The establishment and official recognition of cyber security as a profession is long overdue and recent thefts of big data from a host of companies prove it.  We are rapidly leaving the era when it was cheaper for individual companies (and governments) to pay the cost of occasional cyber breaches than to invest in adequate security (the credit card industry and the European smart card chip is a case in point).  It’s no longer acceptable for professionals, trades people, products and services that are critical to the continuing success of the vital cyber enterprise to operate on a basis of caveat emptor.

In order to assist security professionals in the fight against the ever rising tide of cyber crime, fraud examiners and other control assurance professionals need to understand for each of our client types:

–their business, the related strategic cyber objectives, the market, the stakeholders and what information (especially big data related to customers and products) the enterprise uses and shares;

–the business information flows, relationships and dependencies;

–the value of the business information in financial, strategic and operational terms;

–the impact of failure in information management-corruption, loss or disclosure-and failure in the service provided;

–what it takes to recover to a manageable position in the event of failure or cyber fraud and to understand where such a recovery is not possible (definition of loss boundary conditions).

With this type information in hand, the fraud examiner can hope to realistically assist the security professional in the definition of risk profiles and related fraud scenarios with the objective of moving toward the creation of appropriate cyber security threat counter measures; the effort is guaranteed to add value.

Please make plans to join us on April 16-17th, 2014 for the Central Virginia Chapter’s seminar on the Topic of Introduction to Fraud Examination for 16 CPE ($200.00 for early Registration)! For details see our Prior Post entitled, “Save the Date”!